… My heart’s in Accra Ethan Zuckerman’s online home, since 2003

November 30, 2006

Cass Sunstein’s “Infotopia”

Filed under: Blogs and bloggers,Media — Ethan @ 5:48 pm

Cass Sunstein’s book, Republic.com, published in 2001, offered a useful challenge to some of the cyber-utopian promises celebrated at the turn of the millenium. Nicholas Negroponte, in “Being Digital“, offered the fond hope that future news readers would consult “The Daily Me”, a customized set of news items designed to meet their specific tastes. Sunstein seizes on this possibility and offers a strong caution: if we can choose our own media, it’s possible we will use this power to insulate ourselves in an information cocoon, where we systematically avoid dissenting voices and have increasingly less common experience with our fellow citizens. Sunstein worries that a society of these isolated individuals will have difficulty participating in a democracy because citizens need a) some exposure to materials they would not have sought out and b) some common experience as a precursor for joint decisionmaking.

Republic.com sparked fierce debate amongst scholars of the Internet. Many – myself included – felt that Sunstein’s predictions were somewhat alarmist. While it was certainly possible to use the Internet to isolate yourself, many net users were finding themselves reading media sources they’d never encountered before: newspapers and broadcast media from all around the world as well as the voices of individual bloggers and authors. At the same time, memes swept the net, reaching large portions of internet readers, providing a new (if often very goofy) form of common experience for many users. Sure, we weren’t all watching Walter Cronkite each night, but we hadn’t become radically isolated cocoon-dwellers either.

Adamic and Glance’s visualization of linking patterns in top American political blogs leading up to the 2004 election.

Reacting in part to Sunstein’s claims, a number of researchers looked closely at issues of political and ideological polarization in political blogs. Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance released an excellent paper and visualization (above) in 2005 subtitled, “Divided they Blog”, which suggested that top political bloggers were far more likely to link to bloggers with similar ideologies than to cross ideological lines. On the other hand, there some significant linking across ideological lines, suggesting that even in a circumstance where bloggers have full control over the media they create, they will, in some cases, point to ideologically divergent views. Eszter Hargittai conducted a similar experiment some months later and discovered that in many cases, the links across ideological lines were cases where the other points of view were cited dismissively.

Half a decade after Republic.com, Sunstein is still concerned with the formation of ideological cocoons. In his new book, Infotopia, he’s become a cyber-enthusiast to an extent that would have been hard to imagine a few years ago. Specifically, he’s excited about the ways new online tools make it possible for groups of people to assemble information and accumulate knowledge. He’s become a devotee of Friedrich Hayek, the Austrian economist who saw markets, first and foremost, as a way to aggregate information held by a large group of people. There’s ample evidence that Hayek was right in an examination of the failure of planned economies – smart men sitting in a room do a far worse job of setting the price of copper ore or bread than the collected actions of thousands of consumers, iterated over time.

Markets aren’t the only way to aggregate information from a large group of people. Deliberative groups, where a set of people get together and share the knowledge they have on a problem or an issue, are favored by many political theorists, including Jürgen Habermas, who bases much of his political philosophy on the establishment of a public sphere where deliberation can occur. Sunstein is deeply suspicious of the optimistic claims made for deliberation, and cites a wealth of studies that demonstrate that deliberation, in many cases, leads to bad decisions and the reinforcement of extreme views.

(You can think of Infotopia as a caged deathmatch between Hayek and Habermas, streamed live on the Internet. Habermas taps out somewhere around page 200.)

Inspired in part by James Surowiecki’s “The Wisdom of Crowds”, Sunstein looks at the uncanny ability of large groups to jointly guess the number of beans in a jar. While individual guesses can be far from the mark, the mean guess is often surprisingly close to the actual number. This phenomenon is well explained by the Condorcet Jury Theorem, which suggests that a group of individuals – all of which have a better than even chance of making a correct decision – will have a greater chance of making the correct decision as the size of the group increases. In other words, if we’re pretty good at guessing the number of beans in a jar, lots of us working together are likely to be excellent at the same task.

Unfortunately, the converse is true as well. If each of us have less than a 50% chance of being right about a decision, a group of us will be worse at making a correct decision, with our probability of accuracy increasing towards zero as the size of the group increases. Ignorance can lower our chances of making an accurate decision, but so can political bias and preconception.

One would hope that deliberation could solve this problem – if a small number of people in a group are knowledgeable about a subject, perhaps they can convince the others of the accuracy of their claims and move the group to a result better than the mean of all their preconceptions. This turns out to be true for at least one set of problems: “eureka problems”, where the correctness of a solution is obvious to everyone once it’s been articulated. (Most chess problems, for instance, are “eureka” problems – they end in checkmate, which any player can see once it’s been diagrammed.)

But deliberation on other types of problems has a more complex outcome. Sunstein organized an experiment in deliberation with David Schkade (of the University of San Diego) and Reid Hastie (of the University of Chicago). The professors invited a set of Colorado citizens from two communities – liberal Boulder and conversative Colorado Springs – to come to local universities and deliberate three divisive political topics: global warming, affirmative action and civil rights. The groups – 5-7 randomly selected citizens from the same community – had a strong tendency to become more politically polarized over the course of the discussion. Liberals became more liberal, conservatives more conservative, and the range of ideological diversity in each group decreased.

Explaining the finding, Sunstein offers a number of explanations, each backed up by other research studies. In a group setting, people will often gravitate towards a strongly stated opinion, especially if their own opinions aren’t fully formed. An ideologically coherent group is likely to repeat a great deal of evidence for one side of an issue, giving more reinforcement for that viewpoint. People find it difficult to defy the will of a group, and may polarize to avoid interpersonal conflict.

Sunstein makes a great deal of this finding in the book, though the paper he and colleagues authored suggests that the constraints of the experiment need to be considered very carefully. The groups the researchers constructed were fairly ideologically homogenous, and no attempt was made to give the deliberating groups any information that might challenge their pre-established points of view. Experiments in deliberation which forced ideological mixing and gave both sides information to present their case had very different outcomes – Sunstein points to some of the work done by James Fishkin which finds some reasons for optimism in more guided deliberation. Sunstein and his co-authors argue that the geographic – and hence ideological – filtering they use in the experiment is a very realistic one in modern-day America, where individuals are increasingly choosing to live in communities where their neighbors share their ideologies. Still, it’s a disappointment that Sunstein doesn’t address some of the possible upsides of deliberation more closely.

Moving beyond the deliberation experiment, Sunstein unpacks some notable examples of groupthink in recent American history – the conclusion that there were WMDs in Iraq, the decision that led to the Challenger disaster – and argues that in each case, there was sufficient information in the deliberating group to make the factually correct decision. The social dynamics of deliberation – specifically the desire not to be seen as the lone dissenting voice in the room – prevented the information from being accurately aggregated.

The implications of this argument are quite dramatic – Sunstein argues that the American vision of democracy is based on deliberation. Representatives are not required to unflaggingly vote the way their constituents would poll on an issue specifically so that deliberation in Congress can change opinions. Much of the importance of a free press is the way the press creates a space in which deliberation can occur. If the deliberative process is broken due to ideological cocooning, this could be a serious problem for the future of the republic.

(Reading between the lines, there’s a strong critique of ideological cocooning in the current US administration in Infotopia, though Sunstein leaves it as an exercise for the reader to apply his ideas on cocooning to President Bush and his advisors…)

While pessimistic about using deliberation to accumulate information, Sunstein is very enthusiastic about the powers of prediction markets. He looks closely at the Iowa Electronic Market, where users bet real money on the outcome of local and national elections. The results of the market are consistently better than the results of opinion polls, a finding that’s held true over many years of experimentation. Sunstein features other prediction markets, used in major companies to predict the dates of product launches, or the abandoned Policy Analysis Market, which planned on letting individuals around the world predict political changes, terrorist attacks and other events important to global governments.

Sunstein reads Hayek through Condorcet to explain why prediction markets work so well. When people are putting money on the line – real, or imaginary – they’re more likely to be right than when they’re guessing at beans in a jar. In sufficiently flexible markets, a small number of well-informed actors can steer prices in the right direction (often making money in the process from the less well-informed). And because market participation is generally non-deliberative, the social factors Sunstein identifies as destructive to deliberation don’t come into play.

Markets aren’t the solution to every problem – it’s hard to use a price system to figure out policy solutions for Iraq, for instance. And Sunstein cautions that Hayek is overly optimistic about the fallibility of markets – bubbles and manipulation can lead to situations where markets give incorrect information. But the ability of markets to get a diverse group of people to share information – which Sunstein feels deliberation too often fails at – is the gold standard Sunstein measures other Internet phenomena against.

Using this criterion, Sunstein is optimistic about the potential of wikis in general and Wikipedia specifically. Part of this enthusiasm comes from Jimmy Wales’s embrace of Hayek – Sunstein quotes Wales as declaring, “Possibly one can understand Wikipedia without understanding Hayek… But one can’t understand my ideas about Wikipedia without understanding Hayek.” As in a Hayekian marketplace, Wikipedians add small bits of knowledge, accumulating them towards a shared goal of accurate, neutral encyclopedia articles. Wikis don’t have price signals, though, which means there’s no way of ensuring authors put they money where their mouths are. If I support a blatantly false proposition in a prediction market, I lose money – in Wikipedia, I might lose status, or I might not – the consequences may be lower. Also, in wikis, the final author has a great deal more power than a single buyer in a market. These cautions aside, Sunstein is a fan.

He’s a fan of open source software as well, drawing some of his inspiration from Eric Raymond’s “The Cathedral and the Bazaar“. In economic terms, the planned economies Hayek critiqued so fiercely are cathedrals – bazaars are, of course, free markets. Sunstein – accurately – recognizes that open source projects are hardly as anarchic and free as the bazaar. Most major F/OSS projects have strict hierarchies about who gets to work on core code. But because most projects are open to outside input, at least through bug reports, they serve as aggregators of dispersed information and satisfy Sunstein’s criterion.

Blogs, on the other hand, do not. Sunstein reacts strongly to “blog triumphalism”, and specifically to an assertion by court of appeals Judge Richard Posner (an excellent blogger on the Becker-Posner blog) that, “Blogging is… a fresh and striking exemplification of Friedrich Hayek’s thesis that knowledge is widely distributed among people and that the challenge to society is to create mechanisms for pooling that knowledge.” Blogs, Sunstein argues, fall far short of this promise – instead, they fall victim to many of the same deliberative traps he’s previously identified. “Even the best blogs lack anything like prepublication peer review, and their speed and informality often ensure glibness, superficiality, confusion, and blatant errors. Many blogs in law and politics are close to talk radio, or to brisk and irresponsible conversations over the lunch table.”

While one is tempted to argue with Sunstein at least on the point of “speed and informality” now that I’m several hours into this blogpost(!), I’d prefer to concede Sunstein’s entire argument and point out, instead, that most bloggers wouldn’t make a claim as strong as Posner’s for their online writing. Unlike Wikipedians, who are working towards the common goal of a free, fair and accurate encyclopedia, or F/OSS authors, who are working towards the common goal of a free, functioning piece of software, bloggers usually don’t have a common goal. Holding them to the standard of Hayekian aggregation of accurate information is like criticizing a football team for failing to produce a grand ballet. Yes, some writers have described football as balletic, but your average offensive tackle is trying to pancake a defensive lineman into the ground, not create high art. Your average blogger is trying to express her personal or political opinions, not further the advance of global knowledge.

Blogs make Sunstein nervous because they’re often the sort of strident, biased voices he worried about in Republic.com. Reading DailyKos or Little Green Footballs, it’s not hard to see how some blog communities can look like echo chambers and information cocoons. As one of the founders of a blog community designed to expose readers to perspectives they might not otherwise have seen, I find myself wondering how Sunstein’s reaction to blogging might change had he not focused on the US political blogosphere. I also wonder if a focus on aggregators of blogs, rather than on individual blogs themselves, might have changed Sunstein’s perspective – in all other cases, the phenomena he considers are collective phenomena, while most weblogs are not.

Whether or not I agree with all of Sunstein’s conclusions, his quest for systems that aggregate knowledge across networks is an exciting way to look at the contemporary Internet. A large number of the most interesting projects taking place on the Internet use strategies to aggregate information from multiple users to create new knowledge – this is the magic behind Google’s PageRank algorithm, Digg’s headlines and Amazon’s collaborative filtering recommendations. Analyzing these systems in terms of their effectiveness in getting people to reveal hidden knowledge is, in my opinion, an excellent framework for evaluation. (I’m very interested, for instance, in thinking through how the folksonomy and taxonomy systems David Weinberger is exploring in his forthcoming “Everything Is Miscellaneous” use different mechanisms to assemble information from different actors to organize information.)

It’s also useful to confront Sunstein’s fear of information cocoons again, five years later. Sunstein’s examples of cocooning are interpersonal ones in this book, governments and firms that manage themselves in ways to avoid confronting uncomfortable truths, as opposed to individuals burying themselves in sympathetic media. But media cocooning is a problem for individuals as well, consumers of online and offline media. I suspect it’s possible to use some of the Hayekian thinking about collecting diverse information to create media aggregators capable of breaking cocoons and exposing people to views and perspectives they might otherwise have missed.

Jed Purdy has an excellent review of Infotopia in The New American Prospect, which also looks at Yochai Benkler’s “The Wealth of Networks”.


  1. “Markets aren’t the solution to every problem – it’s hard to use a price system to figure out policy solutions for Iraq, for instance.”

    Markets won’t generate policy solutions, but they could be used to evaluate candidate policies, see http://gondwanaland.com/mlog/2006/11/25/iraq-withdrawal-outcomes/

    Comment by Mike Linksvayer — November 30, 2006 @ 6:20 pm

  2. Just a quick data point: the Iowa Election Market ended up doing relatively poorly in the November 2006 election in the US, predicting Republicans holding the Senate — and up until the very last few days, that a Republican Senate and House was more likely than a Democratic Senate and House. See http://iemweb.biz.uiowa.edu/graphs/graph_CONGRESS06.cfm for the final results.

    Comment by Jamais Cascio — November 30, 2006 @ 7:17 pm

  3. […] Original post by Ethan […]

    Pingback by Search and Find » Cass Sunstein’s “Infotopia” — December 1, 2006 @ 1:27 am

  4. […] Do yourself a favor right now and go read Ethan Zuckerman’s lengthy, thoughtful review of Cass Sunstein’s new book Infotopia.  Among many virtues, Ethan’s post connects Sunstein’s ideas to other developments in cyberspace.  A taste of Ethan’s comments: Whether or not I agree with all of Sunstein’s conclusions, his quest for systems that aggregate knowledge across networks is an exciting way to look at the contemporary Internet. A large number of the most interesting projects taking place on the Internet use strategies to aggregate information from multiple users to create new knowledge – this is the magic behind Google’s PageRank algorithm, Digg’s headlines and Amazon’s collaborative filtering recommendations. Analyzing these systems in terms of their effectiveness in getting people to reveal hidden knowledge is, in my opinion, an excellent framework for evaluation. […]

    Pingback by Info/Law » Zuckerman Ponders Infotopia — December 1, 2006 @ 9:30 am

  5. Thanks, Jamais – that’s really useful – I hadn’t seen that. Any idea why the market did so poorly in the 2006 elections? Sunstein obviously doesn’t mention it – it’s outside of the scope of the book – but would be interesting to see if it had anything to do with known ways markets fail, or whether it’s a novel example of markets failing…

    Comment by Ethan — December 1, 2006 @ 11:38 am

  6. Sunstein wrote a column about the markets’ (non- in his view) failure this cycle http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=w061120&s=cowgillsunstein112106

    Comment by Mike Linksvayer — December 1, 2006 @ 12:52 pm

  7. That partisan blog visualization is so beautiful – in spite of its depressing implications

    Comment by Mary — December 1, 2006 @ 12:55 pm

  8. Cass Sunstein’s “Infotopia”…

    You’ve probably noticed the “Pinged and Referenced by DigBack “ on this website. DigBack is a cool program that lets you find other blogs posts of similar content to your own, and puts a link on those blog posts back to your blog posts, all u…

    Trackback by JRB Technology — December 1, 2006 @ 3:13 pm

  9. Although many people passively participate in stock markets through 401Ks and the like, markets tend to represent not “crowds” but a very small global elite. (See Doug Henwood’s book on Wall Street at wallstreetthebook.com) How is that the “wisdom of crowds”? And why do Senators tend to do statistically better on the market than even the top corporate insiders?

    I’m not being facetious, the fact is that markets are only as good as the information upon which they are based, and as someone who has written so eloquently about information bias in online communities, I’m surprised you don’t raise this criticism.

    Comment by Kerim Friedman — December 2, 2006 @ 8:59 am

  10. Ethan, this post is a classic – thanks for writing it. I think I agree with Sunstein about the limitations of blogs, but it doesn’t worry me.

    Wikipedia and markets produce one very limited form of ‘collective intelligence’ – a synthesis of what we already know.

    Synthesising knowledge is great, but you also need to create it in the first place. Blogs feel like the first stage of that, something like a seminar or a brainstorming session. They’re not good at coming up with correct ideas, but they are good at coming up with ideas. If the area you’re talking about is one where you want a synthesis, then you get there by non-blog means: peer review, experimentation, or whatever.

    Comment by Dan — December 2, 2006 @ 10:24 am

  11. Not that it matters a lot, but Hayek was Austrian, not German…

    Comment by Evgeny — December 4, 2006 @ 6:13 am

  12. It matters to the Austrians, I bet – thanks for the correction, Evgeny.

    Comment by Ethan — December 4, 2006 @ 9:28 am

  13. It sounds like Sunstein is searching for a phenomenological apparatus that synthesizes the philosophies of both Hayek and Habermas. If that is true, then I believe that I have some very good news for him — the conceptual framework for just such a device is already here!


    Let me know what you think.

    Comment by mykljonzun — December 11, 2006 @ 2:26 am

  14. [To the editor of this blog] Sorry, but the link I put into the comment above (#13), the link included the “.” I put at the end of sentence, making the link unusable. Could you please correct it? Thanks!


    Comment by mykljonzun — December 11, 2006 @ 7:13 pm

  15. […] – Are these new forms of speech any good? Do they help the political process? Is it really “speaking truth to power”? Cass Sunstein raises these questions in the revised edition of Republic.com, Republic 2.0, where he argues that some forms of deliberation can increase the polarization of an electorate, rather than bringing diverse viewpoints together. (Sunstein makes some of the same argument in Infotopia, which I’ve reviewed here.) […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » Lessig: “Help us in the US to remember these ideals. Help us by living them yourselves.” — April 3, 2007 @ 11:49 am

  16. […] may also be asking the “what’s so bad about homophily?” question. Here Sunstein can offer some help, suggesting that people who hear only similar voices end up polarized, less likely to compromise […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » Social software, serendipity and salad bars. (Mmm. Sybillance…) — December 19, 2007 @ 8:30 pm

  17. […] more choice – you can choose the news you want to see and read about. Frei jumps on this and asks the Daily Me question – isn’t something lost when you’re reading only the stories you choose. Bernstein jumps […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » Ted2008: Debating the Role of the Media — February 28, 2008 @ 12:23 am

  18. […] us) dumber. (Here she’s pulling on some threads explored by Cass Sunstein in Republic.com and Infotopia. More on that in a bit.) And yesterday, my colleague and friend David Sasaki invoked the […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » Homophily, serendipity, xenophilia — April 25, 2008 @ 7:34 pm

  19. […] length in Republic.com, later Republic.com 2.0, and to a lesser degree in his excellent Infotopia. My review of Infotopia, if you’re interested.) He’s concerned that the customizability and choice offered in […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » The architecture of serendipity — June 9, 2008 @ 5:17 pm

  20. […] argued that societies depend on a healthy public sphere where issues can be freely deliberated. Sunstein’s recent research on this topic focuses specifically on deliberation, where he makes the argument that deliberation with […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » You go to war with the data you have — August 21, 2008 @ 12:19 am

  21. […] …My heart’s in Accra » Cass Sunstein’s “Infotopia” […]

    Pingback by Michael Nielsen » Biweekly links for 09/29/2008 — September 29, 2008 @ 6:54 am

  22. […] A nuanced view, advanced by thinkers like Cass Sunstein (perhaps more in “Infotopia” than in Republic.com 2.0″) that suggests that new media likely enhanced democracy, but […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » OSI - Social media in closed societies — November 22, 2008 @ 6:31 pm

  23. […] Cass Sunstein’s Infotopia (my heart’s in accra) – an extended book review, includes a nice overview of the echo chamber concept in the online environment […]

    Pingback by ⌘f » Blog Archive » Notes from our Online NW talk - Soapbox, Echo Chamber & Salon… — February 13, 2009 @ 2:06 am

  24. Habermas is, incidentally, now on twitter: @jhabermas.

    (I mention this here because I greatly enjoyed this post, many months ago, when I first read it. It inspired me to reread “Infotopia”, to my considerable benefit. Thanks!)

    Comment by Michael Nielsen — January 28, 2010 @ 9:44 pm

  25. […] opinions and beliefs. He’s developed the argument further in a Republic.com 2.0, Infotopia (my review here) and Going to […]

    Pingback by …My heart’s in Accra » The Partisan Internet and the Wider World — May 24, 2010 @ 6:01 pm

  26. […] another review of the book, Ethan Zuckerman […]

    Pingback by Menarik | Asking the audience — June 10, 2010 @ 9:55 am

  27. […] best summary of Cass Sunstien’s “Infotopia” comes from a review by Ethan […]

    Pingback by “Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge”, Cass Sunstein | Blogging the Bookshelf — August 8, 2010 @ 4:21 pm

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